Coronary Artery Disease is characterized by the accumulation of plaque within coronary arteries, which progressively enlarge, thicken and calcify. This causes critical narrowing of the coronary artery lumen (75% occlusion), resulting in a decrease in coronary blood flow and an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle.
Risk factor for Coronary Artery Disease include dyslipidemia, smoking, hypertension, male gender (women are protected until menopause), aging, non-white race, family history, obesity, sedimentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, elevated homocysteine, and stress.
Other causes of angina include coronary artery spasm, aortic stenosis, cardiomyopathy, severe anemia, and thyrotoxicosis.
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